However, motivated in part by frustration at a remote bureaucracy in Brussels and massive migration into the country, UK citizens on 23 June 2016 narrowly voted to leave the EU.
The so-called “Brexit” (British exit) will take at least two years to carry out but could help trigger referenda in other EU countries where skepticism of EU membership benefits is strong.
Radio carbon dating mt st helens
With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR).
The democratic FRG embedded itself in key western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact.
Britain had a debt burden of 92.2% GDP at the end of 2016.
While the UK is one of the fastest growing economies in the G7, economists are concerned about the potential negative impact of the UK’s vote to leave the EU.
The United Kingdom has historically played a leading role in developing parliamentary democracy and in advancing literature and science.
At its zenith in the 19th century, the British Empire stretched over one-fourth of the earth's surface.
As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council and a founding member of NATO and the Commonwealth, the UK pursues a global approach to foreign policy.
The Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, and the Northern Ireland Assembly were established in 1998.
As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations.
European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945.
In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro.continues to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; by 2005 the government reduced the amount of industrial and commercial waste disposed of in landfill sites to 85% of 1998 levels and recycled or composted at least 25% of household waste, increasing to 33% by 2015emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power by 2022; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directiveparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whalingsigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whalingsigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementslies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from France and linked by tunnel under the English Channel (the Channel Tunnel or Chunnel); because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal watersstrategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea; most major rivers in Germany - the Rhine, Weser, Oder, Elbe - flow northward; the Danube, which originates in the Black Forest, flows eastwardthe core of the population lies in and around London, with significant clusters found in central Britain around Manchester and Liverpool, in the Scotish lowlands between Endinburgh and Glasgow, southern Wales in and around Cardiff, and far eastern Northern Ireland centered on Belfastmost populous country in Europe; a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations, particularly in the far western part of the industrial state of North Rhine-Westphalia0-14 years: 17.44% (male 5,761,311/female 5,476,649)15-24 years: 12.15% (male 3,997,150/female 3,830,268)25-54 years: 40.74% (male 13,367,242/female 12,883,674)55-64 years: 11.77% (male 3,760,020/female 3,820,525)65 years and over: 17.9% (male 5,170,542/female 6,363,047) (2016 est.)0-14 years: 12.83% (male 5,317,183/female 5,040,664)15-24 years: 10.22% (male 4,203,985/female 4,044,789)25-54 years: 40.96% (male 16,721,667/female 16,345,911)55-64 years: 14.23% (male 5,695,117/female 5,788,493)65 years and over: 21.76% (male 7,709,799/female 9,855,184) (2016 est.)at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)Englishnote: the following are recognized regional languages: Scots (about 30% of the population of Scotland), Scottish Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland), Welsh (about 20% of the population of Wales), Irish (about 10% of the population of Northern Ireland), Cornish (some 2,000 to 3,000 in Cornwall) (2012 est.)German (official)note: Danish, Frisian, Sorbian, and Romani are official minority languages; Low German, Danish, North Frisian, Sater Frisian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, and Romani are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages"conventional long form: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; note - the island of Great Britain includes England, Scotland, and Walesconventional short form: United Kingdomabbreviation: UKetymology: self-descriptive country name; the designation ""Great Britain,"" in the sense of ""Larger Britain,"" dates back to medieval times and was used to distinguish the island from ""Little Britain,"" or Brittany in modern France; the name Ireland derives from the Gaelic ""Eriu,"" the matron goddess of Ireland (goddess of the land)""conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germanyconventional short form: Germanylocal long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschlandlocal short form: Deutschlandformer: German Empire, German Republic, German Reichetymology: the Gauls (Celts) of Western Europe may have referred to the newly arriving Germanic tribes who settled in neighboring areas east of the Rhine during the first centuries B. as ""Germani,"" a term the Romans adopted as ""Germania""; the native designation ""Deutsch"" comes from the Old High German ""diutisc"" meaning ""of the people"""name: Londongeographic coordinates: 51 30 N, 0 05 Wtime difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)daylight saving time: 1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in Octobernote: applies to the United Kingdom proper, not to its overseas dependencies or territoriesname: Berlingeographic coordinates: 52 31 N, 13 24 Etime difference: UTC 1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)daylight saving time: 1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October England: 27 two-tier counties, 32 London boroughs and 1 City of London or Greater London, 36 metropolitan districts, 56 unitary authorities (including 4 single-tier counties*)two-tier counties: Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Cumbria, Derbyshire, Devon, Dorset, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Hertfordshire, Kent, Lancashire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, North Yorkshire, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Somerset, Staffordshire, Suffolk, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Sussex, Worcestershire London boroughs and City of London or Greater London: Barking and Dagenham, Barnet, Bexley, Brent, Bromley, Camden, Croydon, Ealing, Enfield, Greenwich, Hackney, Hammersmith and Fulham, Haringey, Harrow, Havering, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Islington, Kensington and Chelsea, Kingston upon Thames, Lambeth, Lewisham, City of London, Merton, Newham, Redbridge, Richmond upon Thames, Southwark, Sutton, Tower Hamlets, Waltham Forest, Wandsworth, Westminstermetropolitan districts: Barnsley, Birmingham, Bolton, Bradford, Bury, Calderdale, Coventry, Doncaster, Dudley, Gateshead, Kirklees, Knowlsey, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, North Tyneside, Oldham, Rochdale, Rotherham, Salford, Sandwell, Sefton, Sheffield, Solihull, South Tyneside, St.